Skip to main content

On March 24, 2021, our Midwestern Regional Director Philip Millhouse presented “Native American Mining in the Upper Mississippi Valley: Industrial Production, Conflict and Dispossession Across the Lead Mining Frontier.”

This lecture focused on the critical role of Native American lead mining in the Upper Midwest where the Meskwaki and Ho-Chunk conducted mining operations on an industrial scale. The mines eventually drew thousands of prospectors, resulting in tensions leading to the Winnebago and Black Hawk Wars. He also discussed Indigenous mining history in the upper Midwest and the subsequent treaties that led to the forced removal and dispossession of Native Americans.

  | The Archaeological Conservancy 2021